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Analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of EAF and induction furnace steelmaking(1)


With the increase in steel production, a large amount of scrap steel is also produced in the society, which provides conditions for electric furnace steelmaking in cast steel production. As electric furnaces that use electricity as heat energy, they can be divided into two categories. One isEAFs, which use electric arcs to generate heat to melt scrap steel, and the other is induction furnaces, which use electromagnetic induction to generate heat to melt scrap steel, especially mid-frequency induction. Electric furnace is the representative. Before the 1990s,EAFs were widely used. At that time, high-quality scraps were few, mostly mixed with bad ones, and it was not easy to sort. TheEAF technology was developed earlier and has a large capacity, and the intermediate frequency furnace technology development is not yet mature. After the 1990s, intermediate frequency electric furnaces were mostly used in steel casting plants. Especially in developed capitalist countries,EAFs were not allowed to be used, and intermediate frequency furnaces were generally used. With the improvement of energy saving and environmental protection requirements, the intermediate frequency technology has been greatly developed. From the previous maximum of several hundred kilograms to the current maximum of 50 tons, foreign countries have developed the largest intermediate frequency electric furnace of 100 tons, and the German technology is the best.

1. The induction furnace heats up quickly and has high thermal efficiency. Its heat is generated inside the charge (liquid steel), so it heats up quickly. The heat of the electric arc in theEAF must be transferred to the molten steel through the slag after the charge is cleared, which is indirect heating. The thermal efficiency is poor. The furnace is in the shape of a basin, and a large part of the heat of the electric arc is dissipated through the furnace cover and the furnace wall.

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